1.23.2015

The 1964 Report on Smoking and Health

Just fifty years ago, scientists and health professionals were debating whether smoking tobacco posed health risks. By the early 1960s there was enough evidence indicating the harmful effects of smoking that the U.S. Surgeon General Luther L. Terry convened a committee of authorities to conduct a thorough review of the scientific literature on the matter.

Over the next two years, the committee reviewed 7,000 scientific studies and consulted with 150 experts. In 1964, the Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General was issued at a press conference. The report concluded that smoking causes lung cancer and correlates with an increased risk of bronchitis, emphysema, and heart disease. In addition, the report noted a correlation between smoking during pregnancy and low birth weights.  

The U.S. Surgeon General Luther Terry addressing press conference
at the release of the 1964 Report on Smoking and Health
For those of us where weren’t alive, it may be difficult to believe the extent to which this news impacted the public. The Surgeon General’s press conference headlined in newspapers and lead television news for days. Soon after the report was issued, Congress passed a law requiring a health warning on cigarette packages and in 1969, cigarette advertising on television and radio was banned.
1998 anti-smoking campaign poster from the
Centers for Disease Control
However, the cultural shift heralded by this event is perhaps more notable. At the time, upwards of 40% of Americans smoked, compared to an estimated 18% today. In addition, a 1958 Gallup Poll reported that 44% of American believed smoking causes lung cancer. This number rose to 78% in 1968 and to 92% in 1999. If you look around, you will sometimes see ashtrays in places where smoking is now unimaginable such as classrooms, airplanes, and government buildings!

Many individuals and organizations, governmental and otherwise, have contributed to the decline in tobacco use since 1964 Report on Smoking and Health, but we can point to the publication of this document as seminal in United States history.

To learn more about using primary sources in your research, visit the Albertsons Library Special Collections & Archives Primary Sources Guide or stop by and visit!

Sources consulted:

Fast Facts.” Smoking and Tobacco Use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

History of the Surgeon General's Reports on Smoking and Health.” Smoking and Tobacco Use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Komaroff, Anthony. “Surgeon General’s 1964 report: making smoking history.” Harvard Health Publications. Harvard Medical School.

Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. University of California, San Francisco.

Morales, Lymari. “Most Americans Consider Smoking Very Harmful.” Gallup News.

The Reports of the Surgeon General: The 1964 Report on Smoking and Health.” Profiles in Science. National Library of Science.

Tobacco.” Initiatives. Surgeon General.Gov.

Ellie Dworak
Reference Librarian/Associate Professor



This blog post is the 8th in a series produced in coordination with Albertsons Library’s 50th Anniversary.  #BoiseStLibraryat50

1.16.2015

The Start of the Martin Luther King, Junior/Idaho Human Rights Day Celebration at Boise State

The Annual Martin Luther King Jr./Human Rights March, Rally and Day of Greatness takes place on Monday, January 19 in the Jordan Ballroom of the Student Union.

Though Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is now recognized as a state holiday and it's a given that events will take place to honor this day, that has not always been the case. Early attempts to have a celebration of events on campus go back to January 16, 1989. Eric Love, Black Student Union president and strong supporter of a celebration for Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, organized a rally to protest the university not recognizing the day as a holiday. According to the January 23, 1989 issue of the Arbiter, the article "Protesters Share King's Dream," states that at least 200 students and faculty gathered outside the Business Building on that day. President John Keiser was a speaker during the protest and stated that if the day was a holiday and there were no classes, students would likely be skiing rather than recognizing the importance of the day.

Despite these remarks, Eric Love was among a group of people who continued to work with the administration to recognize King's birthday. The following year saw a series of events over three days honoring MLK Day. It included the march of over 700 Boise State students from the Student Union to the Statehouse. The rally demonstrated to state legislators the need to recognize King's birthday as an official holiday. At that time Idaho was only one of four states in the country that had not declared the day a holiday. During the celebration at the statehouse, Governor Cecil Andrus was among those members of the Boise community asking legislators to make the day an official holiday in the state. The keynote speaker of the 1990 celebration of events, Martin Luther King III, spoke before an audience of over 800 in the Student Union Ballroom. King's call to action for students was to "repay the past" and "create opportunities for those behind us." He also told students that they "have the power to break the chain of bigotry."

The Statehouse rally aided in the creation of the Martin Luther King, Jr./Idaho Human Rights Day in 1990 by the Idaho Legislature. The state holiday was created to give people the chance to participate in honoring Dr. King on the third Monday of January. This new state holiday was officially celebrated on January 21, 1991. That year's MLK celebration expanded into five days of events that included well-known teacher Jaime Escalante as the finale speaker who spoke to a nearly full house. The five days of celebration saw thousands from the campus and Boise community attend and participate in the events.

Since these early Martin Luther King, Jr. Day celebrations on campus, students, faculty, and staff have organized an outstanding array of activities to celebrate the life and principles of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Rather than just having one event, students provide diverse events throughout the week. Events include racism-today workshops, expressions of cultural diversity in Idaho, co-sponsored events with the Idaho Human Rights Commission and other campus and community organizations, and a keynote address by an individual that has made a contribution to the human rights movement. Previous speakers have included Manning Marable, Cornel West, and Yolanda King.

When Eric Love actively worked to make the celebration of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day a reality on campus, he envisioned that it would not be a one-time event but an annual celebration of events. Thanks to his tireless work, this annual celebration is going strong and honors the work of Dr. King.

Julia Stringfellow Archivist/Librarian, Special Collections and Archives

Martin Luther King Jr. - Idaho Human Rights Day

Boise State student leader Eric Love, January 15, 1990 MLK Day rally
On Monday, January 19, 2015 the entire Boise State Campus will be closed to honor Dr. Martin Luther King Junior. A complete list of events in and around campus can be found at http://mlk.boisestate.edu/events/

1.14.2015

Hands-On Emerging Technology Workshops at Albertsons Library

3D printing at Albertsons Library
Albertsons Library’s staff and faculty are here to help you create, discover, learn, and innovate. In this hands on series we will provide a personalized introduction to the library’s technology, our new 3D printer, collaboration lab, learning materials, and information to make your ideas become a reality.

This semester we are offering introductory workshops designed to introduce you to emerging technologies. These aren’t lectures; they’re an opportunity to discover the basics of green screens, 3D modeling, video editing, and more -- by actually doing something! Workshops include: What is 3D printing, Edit a Green Screen Photo, Take a Green Screen Photo, Makey Makey Build Night, Find a thing, Tinker a Thing, 3D print a Thing, Make Your Own Video from Found Content, Getting Your Creative Commons Juices Flowing, Have you hugged your data today?, User Experience Principles: Personas, What the CRAAP?, and Would you like some pi?

No prior knowledge or experience with the technology is required, only your curiosity and a willingness to learn. Supportive staff will guide you through the beginning steps of your journey to learning new technologies. It’s fun, and the skills you learn will improve your school work and future job prospects by letting you take something from idea to tangible project.

Register by signing up here, and we will send you a reminder!

Questions? Email, call or stop by: Amy Vecchione amyvecchione@boisestate.edu Library 212

1.12.2015

Spring Semester Starts at the Library


It may not look like Spring right now (currently foggy & 30ºF), but we're excited to have you back on campus! We strive to make your research and study spaces as comfortable and useful as possible, so here's what you can find at the library:
  • Wireless networking choices
  • Access to over 320+ research databases
  • Library hours for the semester are listed in our calendar
  • A computer lab on the first & second floors running the latest Microsoft Office suite
  • Check out Mac and PC laptops, as well as iPads, netbooks, chargers, headphones & other gear from the Circulation desk on the first floor
  • Scanners and multiple BroncoPrint stations, including wireless printing
  • Reserve study rooms in the library
  • Interested in 3D printing? We have options!
  • Browse Boise State research and scholarship via ScholarWorks
  • Streaming video databases on a wide range of subjects--watch online or on your portable device
  • Huge collection of eBooks via the library catalog
  • A collaboration lab (L109C) with computers & scanners
  • Extensive subject guides in fields such as Anthropology, Raptor Studies, Digital Humanities, Management, and many more, via the library's subject guides
  • Did we mention a Starbucks in the building? First floor, next to the library's entrance
  • Have questions about research, campus, or anything at all? We’re available to help you via our Help page or our social media channels like Facebook, and Twitter. We're well represented on Pinterest and Instagram too. 
  • In a rush? Text us your questions at (208) 546-9982
 Welcome to your Boise State Library. We hope you have a fantastic Spring semester!

1.09.2015

Congratulations Memo! Author of ScholarWorks' Most Downloaded Paper for 2014





Memo Cordova, one of our dedicated reference and instruction librarians, has authored the most downloaded article from ScholarWorks in 2014.  With almost 13,000 downloads, “The Quick Response(QR) Code:Graphic Potential for Libraries” tops an impressive list of publications in ScholarWorks which had a total of 426,901 full-text downloads last year and well over one million to date.

ScholarWorks' open access platform allows Boise State's scholarship to be discovered through Google or other services such as  the DigitalCommons Network. Anyone with internet access can read these publications and learn about the great work happening on our campus.  Curious to know who the other top authors are for this past year? Check out the 2014 statistics report or explore works in over 500 disciplines at scholarworks.boisestate.edu.

Congratulations to Memo and all of our faculty and students who contributed work!


Amber Sherman, ScholarWorks Librarian

12.19.2014

Library Hours & the Holidays


The Albertsons Library will be open limited hours during the holiday break:
  • DEC. 19: Open 8 am to 5 pm 
  • DEC. 20 thru DEC. 28: CLOSED
  • DEC. 29, 30: Open 8 am to 6 pm
  • DEC. 31 thru JAN. 1: CLOSED
  • JAN 2: Open 8 am to 6 pm
Intersession and semester library hours are available at http://goo.gl/oiMq21

Have a great holiday break!